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A giant meteor crater five times the size of Paris has been found half a mile (0.8 km) under the ice in Greenland.

格陵兰的冰层之下半英里(0.8km)处发现了一个比巴黎大五倍的巨型陨石坑。

It is one of the largest impact craters on Earth, and suggests a 3,300ft-wide (1,000-metre) object made of iron smashed into our planet during the last Ice Age.

这是地球上最大的撞击陨石坑之一,证明有一个直径3300英尺(1000米)的铁质物体,在上一个冰河时代撞入地球。

It is believed the resulting explosion threw debris several hundred miles in every direction, reaching as far as modern day Canada.

据信所导致的爆炸,将碎片向每个方向抛出数百英里,最远抵达现在的加拿大。

The 12-billion-tonne meteor landed with the power of 47 million Hiroshima bombs, obliterating all life within a 60-mile (100 km) radius, scientists said.

科学家说,这枚120亿吨的陨石带着相对于4700万枚广岛原子弹的威力从天而降,毁灭了半径60英里(100km)范围内的所有生命。

A 19-mile-wide (30 km) impact crater left by the event remained hidden for at least 12,000 years beneath the Hiawatha Glacier in remote north-west Greenland, although scientists have not categorically dated the event. It could be as long ago as three million years when Greenland's ice sheet had already begun to form.

它造成了19英里(30km)宽的陨石坑,在格陵兰西北部偏远地区的?;潮ㄏ?,至少隐藏了1.2万年——尽管科学家尚未明确此事发生的时间。也可能早在300万年前,当时格陵兰岛的冰原已经开始形成。



The crater was identified with data collected between 1997 and 2014, supplemented with more collected in 2016 using an advanced form of radar sounding.

凭借1997-2014年间收集的数据,以及2016年采用一种先进的雷达探测方式收集的更多数据,这个陨石坑终于获得证实。

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'The two combined made a really strong case for this being an impact-crater site.'

“将二者结合,很有理由证明这是一个撞击坑?!?/span>

The scars of the meteorite smash have been preserved since then after being buried underneath ice more than a kilometre thick.

陨石粉碎的伤痕得到了保存,因为在那之后,它就被埋在超过一公里厚的冰层下面。



It was first discovered in July 2015 when researchers from the Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, detected a depressed area underneath the glacier while inspecting a new map of its physical features.

2015年7月,当来自丹麦自然历史博物馆和哥本哈根大学的研究人员,在查看冰川物理特征的新地图时,探测到冰川下面的一个凹陷区域,第一次发现了这个陨石坑。

A research plane then performed state-of-the-art ice radar measurements which revealed the huge crater in detail.

然后,一架科研飞机进行了最先进的冰川雷达探测,揭示了这个巨大陨石坑的细节。

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Professor Kjær added that Inuits had not yet colonised Greenland at the time of the event, so it was unlikely that any humans were affected.

Kjær教授补充说,因纽特人当时还没有殖民格陵兰岛,所以不太可能有人类受到这场爆炸的影响。

The explosion had a lasting impact because it melted swathes of Greenland's ice sheet, causing a flood of freshwater into the Nares Strait.

这场爆炸产生了长期影响,因为它融化了格陵兰岛的冰原,产生大量淡水形成洪水,流入内尔斯海峡。

Dr Paden said: 'There would have been debris projected into the atmosphere that would affect the climate and the potential for melting a lot of ice.

Paden博士称:“当时可能有碎片被投射到大气中,对气候产生了影响,也有可能融化了大量的冰?!?/span>

'A sudden freshwater influx into the Nares Strait between Canada and Greenland that would have affected the ocean flow in that whole region.

“突然的淡水注入加拿大和格陵兰岛之间的内尔斯海峡,可能对整个地区的洋流产生影响?!?/span>

'The evidence indicates that the impact probably happened after the Greenland Ice Sheet formed, but the research team is still working on the precise dating.'

“证据表明这些影响可能发生在格陵兰岛冰原形成之前,但研究团队依然在研究精确的时间?!?/span>



Chemical analyses performed at Cardiff University allowed researchers to paint a picture of the type of object capable of causing the amount of destruction.

加地夫大学进行的化学分析让研究者们得以绘制一副图片,描述了可能造成这种破坏的物体类型。

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Work remains to determine with more precision the timing of the meteor impact on Greenland.

但需要更多努力,来更加精确的确定陨石撞击格陵兰岛的时间。



Professor Kjaer said: 'The crater is exceptionally well-preserved, and that is surprising, because glacier ice is an incredibly efficient erosive agent that would have quickly removed traces of the impact.

Kjaer教授说:“这个陨石坑保存的特别好,而且令人称奇,因为冰川的冰是一种高效的冲蚀剂,能迅速抹掉撞击痕迹?!?/span>

'But that means the crater must be rather young from a geological perspective.

“但从地质角度来看,这也意味着这个陨石坑肯定相当年轻?!?/span>

'So far, it has not been possible to date the crater directly, but its condition strongly suggests that it formed after ice began to cover Greenland, so younger than three million years old and possibly as recently as 12,000 years ago - toward the end of the last ice age.'

“到目前,还不可能直接确定陨石坑的形成日期,但它的状态有力的暗示了它形成于冰层覆盖格陵兰岛之后,所以它晚于300万年前,可能最晚至1.2万年前——即上一次冰河时代的末尾?!?/span>

The findings were published in the journal Science Advances.

这一发现发表于《科学进步》杂志。